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Unit 1
Fitness
Chapters 17, 18

UNIT / NOTEBOOK REQUIREMENTS
    
    Printed and signed rules sheet
    Guided Reading activity 17.1
    Guided Reading activity 17.2
    Guided Reading activity 18.1
    Guided Reading activity 18.2
    Overhead notes
    Scavanger hunt
    T.V. viewing / Fitness activity comparison
    Fitness planning sheet
    Family history
    Internet activities 1-5

OVERHEAD NOTES

The Six Dimensions of Wellness

Physical wellness
Emotional wellness
Intellectual wellness
Spiritual wellness
Interpersonal and social wellness
Environmental wellness
Behaviors Contributing to Wellness

Physical activity
Healthy diet
Healthy body weight
Effective stress management
Avoidance of tobacco and other drugs; wise use of alcohol, if any
Protection from disease and injury


Getting Serious About Behavior Change
1.  Identify the wellness-related behavior that     you want to change
2.  Gather information and increase your
        knowledge
3.  Understand your limitations and abilities
4.  Don't go it alone - seek the advice and
        support of caring individuals

What Does It Take to Change?
Motivation
raising consciousness about the problem behavior helps create motivation to change
Understanding your locus of control
what you consider to be the source of responsibility for events in your life
can be internal or external
Developing a Behavior
Change Plan

1.  Monitor behavior and gather data
2.  Analyze the data and identify patterns
3.  Set specific goals
4.  Devise a strategy or plan of action
modify environment
create rewards
involve others    
5.  Make a personal contract


Staying With It

Anticipate and overcome possible obstacles:
social influences
levels of motivation and commitment
choice of techniques and level of effort
stress barriers
procrastination, rationalization, blaming
Get outside help if needed
Fitness Definitions
Fitness: the ability of the body to adapt to the demands of physical effort
Physical activity: any movement of the body that is carried out by the muscles and requires energy to produce
Exercise: a planned, structured, repetitive movement designed specifically to improve or maintain physical fitness
Overview of Physical Fitness
All physical activity contributes to health
To be physically fit, you must engage in exercise
only certain types of physical activities contribute to physical fitness
Physical activity levels
Surgeon General (1996)
more than 60% of U.S. adults do not engage in the recommended amount of physical activity
25% of adults get no exercise at all
Recommendations of the Surgeon General's Report
Moderate activity:
on most, preferably all, days of the week
a goal of 150 calories a day
Examples of one day's moderate activity:
30 minutes of brisk walking or 15 minutes of running        
30 minutes of raking leaves or 15 minutes of shoveling snow
two 10-minute bicycle rides or two brisk 15- minute walks
Five Health-Related Components of Fitness
Cardiorespiratory endurance
Muscular strength
Muscular endurance
Flexibility
Body composition
Principles of Physical Training

Specificity
Progressive overload
frequency
intensity
duration        
Reversibility
Individual differences
Choosing Activities for a Balanced Program

Combine a physically active lifestyle with a systematic exercise program
Levels of activity:
sedentary lifestyle, or beginner
moderate activity, or intermediate
top level, the highest intensity or activity level
Tips on Training
Train the way you want your body to change
Train regularly
Get in shape gradually
Warm up and cool down
Listen to your body
Train with a partner
Train your mind
Keep your exercise program in perspective
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity
Key health-related component of fitness
The Cardiorespiratory System
Cardio:
heart and blood vessels
transports oxygen, nutrients, and wastes among vital organs and tissues
Respiratory:
lungs, air passages, and breathing muscles
supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide



Energy Production
Metabolism
the sum of all chemical processes necessary to maintain the body
metabolic rate depends on an individual's level of activity
Energy from food = fuel for the body     
carbohydrates - quick source of fuel
fats - long term fuel
proteins - primarily build new muscle and tissue
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
The basic form of energy used by cells
Three energy systems:
immediate
nonoxidative (anaerobic)
oxidative (aerobic)
Individuals generally use all three systems in combination while exercising         
Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
Improved cardiorespiratory functioning:
increases blood flow to skeletal muscles
decreases blood flow to digestive organs
increases ventilation
increases cardiac output
Improved cellular metabolism:
increases capillaries in the muscles
trains muscles to work more efficiently
may prevent damage to cells
More Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise
Reduced risk of chronic disease:
cardiovascular disease
cancer
diabetes
osteoporosis
Better control of body fat
Improved immune function
Improved psychological and emotional well-being
Developing a Cardiorespiratory Endurance Program
Set realistic goals
Choose sports and activities
Determine frequency, intensity, and duration of training
Allow time for warm-up and cool-down
Maintain with at least 3 days of exercise per week
Frequency, Intensity, and Duration for CRE Training
Frequency
3-5 times per week
Intensity
target heart rate zone or RPE value
increase gradually
Duration
total duration of 20-60 minutes per day
Using Your Target Heart Rate Zone
1. Estimate maximum heart rate (MHR) by subtracting age from 220
2. Multiply MHR by 65% and 90% to find target heart rate zone
Start at 65% or below if you have been sedentary
Benefits of Strength Training
Improved physical performance
Injury prevention
Improved body composition (increases fat-free mass and elevates metabolism)
Enhanced self-image
Improved muscle and bone health with aging
Muscular Strength and Endurance
Muscular strength
the maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in a single effort
Muscular endurance
the ability of a muscle to exert a submaximal force continuously or repeatedly over time
Physiology of Weight Training
Myofibrils make up muscle fibers. Bundles of muscle fibers make up muscles.
Types of muscle fibers
slow-twitch fibers (fatigue-resistant; endurance activities)
fast-twitch fibers (contract more rapidly and forcefully, fatigue more quickly; strength and power activities)
Types of Weight Training Exercises
Isometric (static) - application of force without movement
Isotonic (dynamic) - application of force with movement
constant and variable resistance (most common types)
eccentric loading
plyometrics
speed loading
isokinetic
Weight Training Safety
Use proper lifting technique
Use spotters and collars with free weights
Use common sense with weight machines
keep away from moving parts and weight stacks
adjust machines as needed
be sure machines are clean and in good condition
be aware of your surroundings
Be alert for injuries
Major Benefits of Flexibility
Promotes good joint health
slows joint deterioration
improves quality of life
May prevent low-back pain and injuries
reduces frequency and severity of injuries
Other Benefits of Flexibility
Reduces soreness and aches and pains
Improves performance in sports and other activities
Contributes to good posture
Promotes relaxation
What Determines Flexibility?
Joint structure
primary determinant
Muscle elasticity and length
can be lengthened if stretched regularly
Nervous system activity
stretch receptors control the length of muscles  
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) technique may improve flexibility
Muscle Tissue and Flexibility
Muscle tissue can be stretched to increase flexibility
Connective tissue is most important part of muscle tissue for flexibility
collagen (white fibers) for structure and support
elastin (yellow fibers) are elastic and flexible
titin also plays role in flexibility
Stretching Techniques

Static stretching
each muscle is gradually stretched and held for 10-30 seconds  
Ballistic stretching
sudden stretching in a bouncing movement
NOT recommended
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
muscle is contracted, then stretched
causes soreness, requires partner  
Developing A Flexibility Program
Active and passive stretching
safest technique is active static stretching
add occasional passive assist
Intensity and duration
hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds
at least 4 repetitions of each stretch
rest for 30-60 seconds between stretches
Frequency
minimum of 2-3 days per week
Benefits of Healthy Body Composition
Better health
Improved performance of physical activities
Better self-image
Body Composition
Fat-free mass
all the body's nonfat tissues
bone, water, muscle, connective tissue, organ tissues, teeth
Fat
essential fat (needed for body function)
found in nerves, brain, heart, lungs, liver, mammary glands
nonessential (storage) fat (excess body fat)
found in adipose tissue
Overweight and Obesity Basics
Overweight: total body weight above recommended range
Obesity: more serious degree of overweight  based on percent body fat or other method
Percent body fat --proportion of body's total weight that is fat -- is a more accurate measurement of body composition than total body weight
Body Composition in the United States
More than 50% of American adults are classified as overweight
22% of American adults are classified as obese
Sedentary lifestyles are on the increase
Average calorie intake has increased by 100-300 calories/day in 10 years
Assessing Body Composition
Body Mass Index (BMI)
calculated by dividing weight by square of height
Percent body fat
calculated using skinfold measurements
Other methods
underwater (hydrostatic) weighing
bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)
Measuring Body Fat Distribution
Waist circumference measurement
Waist-to-hip-circumference ratio
Results that exceed norms are associated with significant health risks
Achieving Healthy Body Weight and Composition
Set an overall goal and realistic intermediate goals
Calculate a target body weight or percent body fat
Increase level of activity
Follow a healthy diet
Track progress
Developing a Personal Fitness Plan
1. Set goals
ask yourself what you want from your fitness program
2. Select activities
include activities to develop cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and healthy body composition
Developing a
Personal Fitness Plan (cont.)

3. Set target intensity, duration, and frequency
4. Set mini-goals and rewards
5. Include lifestyle physical activity
6. Develop tracking tools (activity log or journal)
7. Make a commitment
Putting Your Plan Into Action
Start slowly
Increase intensity and duration gradually
Find an exercise buddy
Vary your program
Expect fluctuations and lapses
Exercise Guidelines for Special
Health Concerns
Arthritis: focus on flexibility and joint mobility
Asthma: exercise regularly; try interval training
Diabetes: be sure diabetes is under control before starting program; adjust insulin levels as needed
Heart disease and hypertension: check with physician before increasing activity level
Obesity: choose  low-to-moderate-intensity activities; ease into program gradually
Osteoporosis: focus on weight-bearing activities and weight training; avoid activities stressing the back or with risk of falling
Safety and Success in Fitness
Know your body and its limits
avoid injury and unnecessary stress
wear proper safety equipment, comfortable clothing, and good shoes
Get clearance from a physician, if necessary
Identify special health needs
Gain support of family or friends
Stick with your program

INTERNET ACTIVITIES 1- 5

INTERNET HEALTH ACTIVITY #1
MR. LINSTED

Name ________________________

Class period ___________

Date __________

Directions:
Go to the following GLENCOE website:
http://www.glencoe.com/sec/index.phtml
Click on HEALTH
Click on STUDENT SITE
Click on INTERACTIVE PROJECTS (under single, teal covered textbook)
Click on PLANNING A FITNESS CENTER
Click on SOME FITNESS BASICS
Click on INFORMATION
Click on EXERCISE IQ TEST

Take the 10-question fitness quiz.

For each question, describe the correct answer and whether or not you answered the question correctly.

Describe the two questions that you found to be the most surprising or interesting.

On a scale of 1-5 (5 being the best), rate your self in terms of your knowledge of fitness and training principles.  Explain the rating you gave yourself.

(You have the option of copying this page into a word processor, and then typing out your response.  Or you may write out your answers)


INTERNET HEALTH ACTIVITY #2
MR. LINSTED

Name ________________________

Class period ___________

Date __________

Directions:
Go to the following GLENCOE website:
http://www.glencoe.com/sec/index.phtml
Click on HEALTH
Click on STUDENT SITE
Click on INTERACTIVE PROJECTS (under single, teal covered textbook)
Click on PLANNING A FITNESS CENTER
Click on SOME FITNESS BASICS
Click on INFORMATION
Click on BENEFITS OF EXERCISE

Directions:
Read each benefit of physical fitness listed on this web page.  Then list two interesting facts for each benefit.

(You have the option of copying this page into a word processor, and then typing out your response.  Or you may write out your answers)



INTERNET HEALTH ACTIVITY #3
MR. LINSTED

Name ________________________

Class period ___________

Date __________

Directions:
Go to the following website:
http://www.healthchecksystems.com/heart.htm

What is a Target Heart Rate?

What role does the Target Heart Rate play in planning and implementing a fitness program?

How is the Target Heart Rate calculated?  

How do you determine your resting heart rate?
    
Your Maximum heart rate is:
Your Minimum training heart rate is:
Your Maximum training heart rate is:


INTERNET HEALTH ACTIVITY #4
MR. LINSTED

Name ________________________

Class period ___________

Date __________

Directions:
Go to the following website:
http://thriveonline.oxygen.com/fitness/planner/
Go through the five components or sections listed on the website.

For each section describe what your fitness prescription is.  Please include exercises, equipment, set/reps, instructions etc.

Do you feel that a web site fitness planner like this is a helpful tool for people?  Why or why not?
List three things you liked about this site.
Is there anything that you disliked about this site?  Explain your answer.


INTERNET HEALTH ACTIVITY #5
MR. LINSTED

Name ________________________

Class period ___________

Date __________

Directions:
Find a fitness related website which you are interested in. Then, complete the following.

Name and address(url) of website:

Why did you select this website?

What did you find interesting or helpful in this site?

Describe three things that you think make this a cool website!

Who would you recommend this site to?

What is the motivation behind the development of this site?

In what ways could this site be improved?




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